DEPENDENCIA DEL CANNABIS ENTRE ADULTOS JOVENES: HALLAZGOS DEL ESTUDIO DE COHORTE DE LA SALUD DE LOS ADOLESCENTES DE VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA

DEPENDENCIA DEL CANNABIS ENTRE ADULTOS JOVENES: HALLAZGOS DEL ESTUDIO DE COHORTE DE LA SALUD DE LOS ADOLESCENTES DE VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA

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Cuando los adolescentes consumen cannabis por lo menos una vez por semana, superan el umbral de riesgo de adquirir futura dependencia selectiva de la droga. A partir de un estudio de 1 601 adultos jóvenes en siete momentos sucesivos diferentes, se estableció que ese riesgo, en el sexo masculino, era independiente del consumo de alcohol y cigarrillos, y del comportamiento antisocial durante la adolescencia.
Autor:
Carolyn Coffey
Columnista Experto de SIIC
Artículos publicados por Carolyn Coffey
Coautores
Michael Lynskey* John B Carlin** Louisa Degenhardt*** George C. Patton**** 
PhD, Dept of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, ST Louis, MO, EE.UU.*
PhD, Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Australia**
PhD, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia***
MD, FRANZCP, Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia****
Recepción del artículo
20 de Agosto, 2003
Primera edición
29 de Enero, 2004
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
7 de Junio, 2021

Resumen
Objetivos. La dependencia de cannabis aumenta la posibilidad de que se presenten consecuencias adversas de su uso intensivo, pero la etiología está mal comprendida. Informamos aquí :a) la prevalencia de dependencia de cannabis y b) los factores predictores de adicción en los adolescentes en una población representativa de adultos jóvenes. Métodos. En el año 1998 fueron evaluados 1 601 adultos jóvenes (media de la edad, 20.7 años) de un estudio longitudinal, de cohorte (N = 2 032), que recolectó información en 7 momentos diferentes (ondas). El consumo habitual de drogas fue definido según el DSM-IV (consumo de cannabis). Se evaluaron las mediciones, realizadas en las 6 primeras ondas, de los presuntos factores de riesgo de dependencia entre los adolescentes. Resultados. Cincuenta y nueve de cada cien participantes informaron uso en algún momento de su vida de cannabis, 17% por lo menos en forma semanal y 7% reunía criterios para dependencia de la droga. La prevalencia de síntomas en los que tenían dependencia fue: deseo persistente 91%; uso a pesar de la voluntad de evitarlo 84%; abstinencia 74%; tiempo excesivo para obtener o consumir la droga 74%; uso continuo a pesar de la presencia de problemas de salud 63%; tolerancia 21%; consecuencias sociales 18%. El sexo masculino, el consumo regular de cannabis en ausencia de consumo persistente problemático de alcohol, la duración del hábito de fumar cigarrillos y el comportamiento antisocial durante el periodo de la adolescencia permitieron predecir de manera independiente adicción al cannabis. Conclusiones. El uso semanal de cannabis en adolescentes marca el umbral de mayor riesgo de adquirir dependencia selectiva con posterioridad, lo que sugiere posibles mecanismos de adicción temprana. La frecuencia más elevada de uso en adultos jóvenes supone riesgo significativo de dependencia, que debería ser considerado en las estrategias de salud pública.

Palabras clave
Dependencia de cannabis, síntomas, adulto joven, factores predisponentes, adolescentes, estudio de cohortes, estudio prospectivo


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Abstract
Objectives Cannabis dependence increases the likelihood of adverse consequences of heavy use but its aetiology is poorly understood. We report (a) prevalence of cannabis dependence and (b) adolescent predictors of dependence in a representative population of young adults. Methods 1601 young adults (mean age 20.7 years) from a seven-wave Australian longitudinal cohort study (N=2032) were surveyed in 1998. Regular substance users were assessed for DSM-IV cannabis. Putative adolescent risk factors measured from the six earlier waves were assessed.Results 59% reported lifetime use of cannabis, 17% used at least weekly and 7% met criteria for cannabis dependence. Symptom prevalence in dependent cannabis users was: persistent desire 91%; unintentional use 84%; withdrawal 74%; excessive time obtaining/using 74%; continued use despite health problems 63%; tolerance 21%; social consequences 18%. Male gender, regular cannabis use in the absence of persistent problematic alcohol use, duration of cigarette smoking and antisocial behaviour during adolescence independently predicted cannabis dependence.Conclusions. Weekly adolescent cannabis use marks a threshold for increased risk of later dependence with selective use possibly indicating early addiction processes. Progression beyond weekly use of cannabis use in young adulthood carries a significant risk of dependence that should be considered in public health response.

Key words
Dependencia de cannabis, síntomas, adulto joven, factores predisponentes, adolescentes, estudio de cohortes, estudio prospectivo


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Clasificación en siicsalud
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Especialidades
Principal: Toxicología
Relacionadas: Epidemiología, Medicina Interna, Salud Mental, Salud Pública



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