LA ENSEÑANZA DE TECNICAS DE AUTOCONTROL EN NIÑOS

LA ENSEÑANZA DE TECNICAS DE AUTOCONTROL EN NIÑOS

(especial para SIIC © Derechos reservados)
El déficit de autocontrol puede causar gran número de psicopatologías. Es por ello que la enseñanza del autocontrol en etapas tempranas de la vida es de suma importancia. El entrenamiento debe adecuarse de manera individual, con tiempo y nivel apropiados para que las experiencias resulten exitosas; de lo contrario, se produciría un retroceso en lugar de un avance.
strayhorn.jpg Autor:
Joseph Strayhorn
Columnista Experto de SIIC
Artículos publicados por Joseph Strayhorn
Recepción del artículo
9 de Septiembre, 2003
Aprobación
29 de Octubre, 2003
Primera edición
12 de Febrero, 2004
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
7 de Junio, 2021

Resumen
El autocontrol consiste en la elección y puesta en práctica de una opción superior comparada con otra alternativa más tentadora, aún cuando esta última sea más placentera. Gran parte de la psicopatología y del sufrimiento humano surgen de deficiencias en el autocontrol. Un importante método para inculcar autocontrol es mediante la posibilidad de ofrecerle al niño miles de oportunidades de obtener exitosamente recompensas no inmediatas. Para muchos niños con predisposición al autocontrol y con experiencias de aprendizaje favorables y tempranas, las demandas habituales tanto en el hogar como en el ámbito escolar pueden ser suficientes para proveer estas oportunidades. Pero para aquellos que llegan a la escuela con deficiencias importantes del autocontrol, se plantea la hipótesis de que un entrenamiento más intenso tendrá mejores resultados potenciales a largo plazo. El autocontrol puede enseñarse por métodos que incluyen la fijación de objetivos, la presentación de modelos, la enseñanza, la práctica, el refuerzo y la supervisión. Una intervención intensiva usualmente requiere disminuir el grado de dificultad de los desafíos en cuanto al autocontrol hasta el punto en el cual el niño tiene la posibilidad de éxito. Para muchos niños con grandes problemas de autocontrol, el entrenamiento personalizado es el punto de partida para lograr éxito en el desarrollo de esta habilidad.

Palabras clave
Autocontrol, retraso en la gratificación, auto regulación, auto disciplina


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Abstract
Self-control is choosing and enacting an option that is a better choice than an alternative tempting option, even when the tempting option is more pleasurable. A vast amount of psychopathology and human misery spring from self-control deficiencies. An important method of instilling self-control is to provide the child with thousands of opportunities to work successfully for a delayed reward. For many children with dispositions toward self-control and favorable early learning experiences, the ordinary demands of school and home life may be sufficient to provide these practice opportunities. But for those who arrive at school with significant self-control deficiencies, a more intensive training intervention is hypothesized to hold out potential for long-term gain. Self-control may be taught by methods including goal-setting, modeling, instruction, practice, reinforcement, and monitoring. Intensive intervention usually involves moving downward on the hierarchy of difficulty for self-control challenges to the point where the child is able to be successful, and then working up the hierarchy at a rate determined by the child\'s success frequency. For many children with great self-control problems, one-on-one training is the point of entry into the child\'s experience of success with self-control tasks.

Key words
Autocontrol, retraso en la gratificación, auto regulación, auto disciplina


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Especialidades
Principal: Salud Mental
Relacionadas: Epidemiología, Pediatría



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