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TRATAMIENTO ANTIMICROBIANO INTRAVENOSO EN EL DOMICILIO

TRATAMIENTO ANTIMICROBIANO INTRAVENOSO EN EL DOMICILIO

(especial para SIIC © Derechos reservados)
El tratamiento antimicrobiano domiciliario intravenoso es un procedimiento en expansión por sus ventajas clínicas, de gestión y para el paciente. Los antimicrobianos más utilizados son los de administración en dosis única diaria. Los que requieren más de una dosis diaria pueden administrarse mediante bombas portátiles de infusión o dispositivos elastoméricos. La contención del gasto, los nuevos antimicrobianos, las infecciones nosocomiales y la telemedicina pronostican un aumento de este procedimiento.
Autor:
Victor González Ramallo
Columnista Experto de SIIC

Institución:
Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón


Artículos publicados por Victor González Ramallo
Recepción del artículo
27 de Febrero, 2013
Aprobación
25 de Marzo, 2013
Primera edición
6 de Mayo, 2013
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
22 de Octubre, 2013

Resumen
El tratamiento antimicrobiano domiciliario intravenoso (TADE) es el procedimiento por el cual administramos en el domicilio del paciente fármacos antimicrobianos a través de una vía venosa. Es más restrictivo que el acrónimo anglosajón OPAT (outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy), que incluye todos los tratamientos parenterales administrados sin ingreso hospitalario. Tras iniciarse en los años setenta en los EE.UU., en los últimos años se ha producido un gran crecimiento de este procedimiento en Europa y otros países. El elemento clave para el éxito del TADE es una adecuada selección de los pacientes. Los antimicrobianos más utilizados en el TADE son los de administración en dosis única diaria (ceftriaxona, aminoglucósidos, ertapenem, daptomicina, teicoplanina). Los fármacos que requieren más de una dosis diaria pueden administrarse mediante bombas portátiles programables de infusión o dispositivos elastoméricos precargados, contando en este último caso con la colaboración del paciente o cuidador. El espectro de cuadros clínicos es cada vez más amplio y, en una parte importante de ellos, puede iniciarse el TADE de forma ambulatoria, sin período previo de hospitalización. Las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación y las aplicaciones de la telemedicina permiten mantener monitorizados pacientes con TADE cada vez más complejos sin necesidad de realizar visitas diarias del personal sanitario. Las necesidades de reducción del gasto sanitario en los países desarrollados, la introducción de nuevos antimicrobianos, el aumento de las infecciones por microorganismos multirresistentes y las preferencias de los pacientes por recibir atención médica especializada en sus domicilios hacen esperar un gran crecimiento de este procedimiento terapéutico.

Palabras clave
servicios domiciliarios basados en el hospital, tratamiento intravenoso domiciliario, antibióticos intravenosos, agentes antimicrobianos, ahorro de costes


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Abstract
Home intravenous antibiotic therapy (HIVAT) is the procedure by which a patient is given a treatment of antimicrobial drugs through a venous pathway at home. It is more restrictive than the Anglo-Saxon acronym OPAT (outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy), which includes all parenteral treatment administered without hospital admission. After its start in the USA in the 1970s, this procedure has seen an important growth in Europe and other countries in recent years. The key element for the success of HIVAT is an appropriate selection of patients. Antimicrobials most used for HIVAT are those administered as a single daily dose (ceftriaxone, aminoglycosides, ertapenem, daptomycin, teicoplanin). Drugs requiring more than one daily dose may be given by means of portable programmable infusion pumps or pre-loaded elastomeric devices, counting in this last case on the cooperation of patients or caregivers. The spectrum of clinical illnesses is increasingly broader and, in a good number of cases, HIVAT may be started on an outpatient basis, without a prior period of hospitalization. New communication technologies and telemedicine applications allow for the continued monitoring of increasingly more complex patients with HIVAT, without the need of daily visits from healthcare personnel. The needs for cost reduction in health expenditure in developed countries, the introduction of new antimicrobials, the increased number of infections due to multi-resistant microorganisms and the preference of patients for receiving specialized medical care in their homes mean that important growth in this therapeutic procedure can be foreseen.

Key words
hospital-based ambulatory services, outpatient endovenous treatment, endovenous antibiotics, antimicrobial agents, cost reduction


Clasificación en siicsalud
Artículos originales > Expertos de Iberoamérica >
página   www.siicsalud.com/des/expertocompleto.php/

Especialidades
Principal: Administración Hospitalaria, Infectología
Relacionadas: Atención Primaria, Enfermería, Farmacología, Geriatría, Medicina Farmacéutica, Medicina Interna



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Victor González, Unidad de Hospitalización a Domicilio Hospital General Universitario "Gregorio Marañón", 28007, Doctor Esquerdo 46, Madrid, España
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